“Video-Computer Modelling” Course

for the Students-Architects


Mikhail Shargorodsky,

Technical University of Moldova, Kishinev, Republic of Moldova





·        Abstract

·        Video-computer modelling course

·        Conclusion. A course work

·        References




 In the Technical University of Moldova “Video-Computer Modelling” course has been elaborated and included into the curriculum of the specialty “2401, Architecture” (10th  semester).


“Video-Computer Modelling” course appeared in many respects due to the one of the leading specialists of Europe in the field of the video-computer modelling for  perception of architectural designs, the head of the Laboratory of Videosystems of Moscow Architectural Institute (State Academy), Prof. M. Matalasov       [1 – 4], who conducted a seminar  at “Urbanism and Architecture”  department of the Technical University of Moldova in October 2004 [4] and handed over a wide collection of the scientific, methodological and illustrative materials.


Further you can see the lecture contents of the above-mentioned course (32 hours).


Key words: architecture, modelling, endoscopy, computer, photomontage, raster graphics, layer, mask,  contour, channel, vector graphics, perspective, course, lecture, seminar, exam.



Video-computer modelling course


Theme 1. Introduction. Aim and objectives of the course.  Problems of the perception of the designed space. The history of the video-modeling development. Classification of the visual models of architectural objects. Classification of the analysis means of the architectural objects’ models in the environment. Four main functions of video-modelling. Review of the state of the modern market of the video-computer modelling services. European Architectural Endoscopy Association (EAEA).


Theme 2. Video-modeling on the basis of the traditional architectural models. Gulliver’s effect. Example of the combined computer image creation on the basis of the traditional architectural models (fig.1). Endoscopes. Review of the patents on the architectural endoscopy (G09B25/04, G09B23/04). Endoscopic Scanning Systems. Modelling of the observer’s movement. Lighting modellling. Model scales .








Fig. 1. Example of the combined image creation  on the basis of the traditional architectural models:

a) Video-frame of the composition made of white cardboard; b) The model of the composition in video frame of a real  situation (Kishinev, 31 August Street)  (author – stud.  I.Tukuser)


Theme 3. Video-modeling on the basis of the raster computer graphics. An example of the creation of a combined computer image by means of the raster computer graphics (fig.2). Raster. Pixel. Halftone screen frequency. Image resolution. Colour intensity.  Raster storage in the video buffer. Moire, reasons of the occurrence, compensation. Tone, tone density, tone range, tone distribution, bar chart. Classification of the images according to the tone and colour. Formats of the raster files. Hardware of the raster video-modelling (market review). Digital cameras. Scanners. Scanning parameters.








Fig. 2. a) The 3D-model of the Busines Centre; b) The 3D-model in video frame of a real  situation (Kishinev, Dacia Bd.) (author – stud. E.Penkov)


Theme 4. Layers of the raster document. Raster base. Background layer. Work layers (usual, textual, filling and correctional). Operations with the layers: removal, image control, binding, combining, shift through the thickness of the document, rename.  


Theme 5. Colour systems.  RGB System. CMYK system. Relation between RGB and CMYK systems. CIF system. Colour table. Adaptive palette.


Theme 6. Channels. Colour and service channel. Alpha-channel. Channels of different formats of the raster documents. Channel brightness. operations with channels: colour separation, channel copying, channel removal, channel separation and joining up.


Theme 7. Contours.  Elements of Bezier’s contour: knots, leading points, leading lines, segments, inflection. Types of knots: smoothed, symmetrical, angular. Editing Bezier’s contours. Simple and fragmentary contours. Working and saved contours. Operations with contours: contour selection; direct selection, knot addition, knot removal, knot transformation. Inking, types of inking.


Theme 8. Algorithms of the colour mixture. Normal. Dissolve. Behind. Clear. Darken (Replacement with the dark). Multiply. Colour Burn. Linear Burn.   Lighten. Screen. Colour Dodge. Linear Dodge. Overlay. Soft Light. Hard light. Bright light. Vivid Light. Pin Light. Hard Mix. Difference. Exclusion. Hue (Colour tone). Saturation. Colour. Luminosity.


Theme 9. Masks. Processing masks. Creation of the colour mask. Mask editing. (Feather, Modify>Border,  Modify>Smooth, Modify>Expand, Modify>Contract, Grow, Similar, Transform Selection). Mask saving. Mask loading. Reflection masks. Layer mask. Vector mask. Cut mask. Examples of the mask usage at the “photomontage”.


Theme 10. Video-modelling on the basis of the vector computer graphics.  Example of the combined computer image creation by means of the vector compute graphics (fig.3). Photograph as a perspective image on the ramp. Vectorizer. Geometrical elements of the perspective on the ramp, methods of their recognizing. Methods of the contour perspective construction on the ramp on the given elements of the perspective. Characteristics of the contours and fillings of the objects. Operations with the fillings.







Fig. 3. a) Video frame of real situation (Kishinev, Bonulescu-Bodoni Street); b) Design solution of the building “Unibanc”  (author – M. Shargorodsky)


Seminars (16 hours). Seminars include practical exercises to fasten the material of the lectures (Themes 3-10).


Conclusion. A course work


A course work is envisaged, whose objective is to insert a real image of the three-dimensional model of a given architectural object into the image of the existing environment. During the course work implementation a photograph is taken of the supposed place of the object construction from the given points (at the same time a place of camera setting and optic axis direction as well as the direction of the sun rays are fixed). A three-dimensional geometrical model of the object is created. The model is visualized at the set cameras, background and directional light sources. The result of this is a raster image of the object. The photomontage of the object image and its environment is carried out by means of the raster graphics. The work is evaluated according to the following criteria: coincidence of the central points of the model image and the environment; coincidence of the resolutions and tones of the object image and the environment; coincidence of the lighting parameters of the object and the environment; the presence of the environment images’ overlappings over the object images.


The course is finished with the exam on the theoretical part of the course.




  1. Matalasov, M.; Zavrazhine, K. (2002): Videocomputer Modelling of Perception in the Educational Architectural Designing. Proc. of the 5th  EAEA Conf. of the European Architectural Endoscopy Assotiation. University of Essen, Essen, Germany


  1. Маталасов, М.; Маталасов, Е.: Некоторые аспекты применения современных эндоскопических методов моделирования восприятия архитектурно-градостроительных пространств. Изв. вузов. Строительство, Новосибирск, 2004, №5



  1. Matalasov, M.; Matalasov, E.; Schmidt, A.; Schloemer, N. (2004): International Educational "Virtual Collectives" and Potential Collaboration in Video Computer Simulation for Perception of Educational Urban Design and Architectural Projects.
     Computer Graphics & Geometry, Vol. 6, N1 (www.elibrary.ru/cgg).


  1. Маталасов,  М. (2004): О методах оценки при применении трехмерного эндоскопического моделирования в архитектурной практике, Probleme actuale ale urbanismului si amenajarii teritoriului. Vol. I, Chisinau, Univ. Tehnica a Moldovei